Book Cover
Water, Water

by Lin Stone

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including scanning, photocopying, or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Copyright © 2012 Browzer Books


Table of Contents

 

1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10

11. 11

12. 12

13. 13

14. 14

15. 15

16. 16


1. 1

             

 

 

 

Bubbling upward,

fresh and clean,

Giver of food,

life - – and

everything.

 

water fountain

 

WATER, WATER

Was written by Lin Stone

For parents to read

to their bright children

 


2. 2

Have you ever wished you were a camel?

 

Ahab did;  Camels don't need much water, and Ahab was about to face a water shortage much worse than the one we have today.

             

Camel, ready to go

 

In the King James Version of the Bible at 1 Kings 16:33 it says "And Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were before him."

 

Oh, my goodness.  Heavenly Father was quite angry with King Ahab.

He sent Elijah the prophet to tell the king to change his ways at once or there would be BIG trouble.

 

1 Kings, 17:1 tells us what happened. "And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the inhabitants of Gilead, said unto Ahab, "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word."

 

Elijah was the High Priest responsible for all of Israel and he was warning King Ahab that there would be a drought in the land.

 

What is a drought?

Wasteland

Ahab wasn't quite sure either, so after he ran Elijah out of his palace, Ahab began to ask around -- and he wasn't very happy with what he found out.


3. 3

              Well, exactly what IS a drought?

Weathermen say that we are having a drought when there is much less rain falling in a certain area than usual.

Elijah was a prophet that held the priesthood power to keep it from raining. He even had the power to hold back the dew from settling on the dust.

Ahab was proud of not doing what God wanted him to, and that's why Elijah said rain would stop falling in Israel.

Rain is 99.6% water and another way to see how serious a drought is will be to see a drought as a LACK of water. 

At first, King Ahab didn't even care if it rained or not!  After all, he lived in a great big palace and there was a big, deep well right outside his door. All he needed was a rope and someone to haul the bucket up for him to have all the water to drink he wanted.

But he soon found out that even mean old kings must make sure their people have water to drink -- and not one city in Israel received enough rainfall to replenish all the water it was using.

But still, Ahab only had 20,000,000 people to worry about. "The rivers are running, our lakes are full and our wells have enough water in them for everyone to drink." 

That wasn't quite true, but it sounded good.  When something sounds good people usually wait until it is too late to do anything about it. 

Ahab had his scribes sit down and figure out just how much water it would it take to make 20,000,000 people happy.

Hmm.

Do you know how big a football field is?

Well, if you had a water jug that was four feet high and big enough inside to hold a whole football field it would only hold enough water to keep you alive and happy for one year.

How much water is that?

A: almost 1.5 million gallons!

Oh, OH!

That's enough water to go boating in, right?

 

 

Well, just remember, all that water would just barely be enough to keep you happy for one year. You would need that much water again on another football field for each person in your family. Can you tell your scribes to figure out how many football fields of water it would take to make your whole family happy?

What about your friends at school?

Don't you want them to be happy too?

 

 4. 4

              Our Exculpatory Clause

Soil Splitting sign of drought

 

We are just having fun here.  Please be advised and forewarned: All information, suggestions, techniques, ideas and resources are provided "as is". The publisher doesn't claim to know everything there is to know about water,

nor does the author. However, inside this book we have tried our best to be as helpful as possible even in the humorous suggestions we make.

Of course, in the final analysis all of your results are entirely up to you. Therefore, the author, publishers and marketers of this information disclaim any loss or liability, either directly or indirectly as a consequence of applying the information presented herein, or in regard to the use and application of said information.

No guarantee is given, either expressed or implied, in regard to the merchantability, accuracy, or acceptability of this information. You may use this book as a guide to those areas where you MUST acquire personal experience from in order to improve your base of knowledge.

As always, it is suggested that local legal advice from competent sources near you. When you do so, do not assume they have heard of these strategies, nor assume you are wiser than they are just because you do know them. Remember that everything in this field is subject to change without notice and that changes do not propagate throughout the world at the same rate.

Above all, you are again strictly enjoined to seek and use the advice of competent authority figures in your local area before applying any techniques, strategies or resources in this book.

Thank you.

BrowzerBooks

 

 

 


5. 5

              

Horses beside pond

 

How many football fields full of water do you think King Ahab would need to keep all 20,000,000 of his people happy? Yeah, 20,000,000. Wow!

 

What are they doing with all that water?

 

Well, just one quick five-minute shower uses 25-50 gallons of water.

When you let the faucet run, it takes 2 gallons just to brush your teeth.

An automatic dishwasher uses 9-12 gallons of water and the only thing it accomplishes is to wash a few dishes. But, your Mom probably rinses them first on top of that.

 

Almost seven gallons of water are needed to flush a toilet down.

What about all that food you eat? Yes! Water is needed to grow every bite! In fact, on the average it takes 1,000 gallons of water to grow and process each pound of all that food.

 

Grown people eat about 1,500 pounds of food each year.

Some teenagers eat more than that.

 

Yes, it takes a lot of water to raise the food you eat.

 

King Ahab didn't care if anybody took a shower. He didn't care if anybody washed their own dishes. He didn't care if they washed their own clothes or brushed their teeth. But when it came to eating and drinking and putting lots of food on his table, King Ahab cared a whole lot!

 

In Israel water disappears very quickly. That's called evaporation. I'll tell you a lot more about evaporation a little later.  Ahab was shocked when the water began to disappear in Israel.  His streams were trickles. 

 

"How can this happen just because rain has quit falling?"  It was a real puzzle;  "What does rain have to do with my river water?"

 

One brave young scribe said, "The only reason your rivers have running water is because it rains in the mountains.  Now the rain has stopped falling and so your rivers are slow to run!"

 

Ahab didn't like that one bit.   

Ahab was angry because there was less and less food to put on the king's table.  His scribes said, "Don't worry; you have lots of gold; you can import water melons from Egypt, o King." 

 

"WATER MELONS?"  King Ahab stood up and stomped his foot so hard his gold fell over.  He had so much gold it nearly killed him.  "In this hot drought weather, water melons would explode!" 

 

Before he would let water melons be imported Ahab called in his chief chef.. "When temperatures reach the boiling point, we will want meals as portable and energetic as you are.  When it comes hot summer, no one wants to be loaded down by a heavy meal in their stomach. Now you find some ways to adjust our meals so that we get optimum nutrition without being so full we start putting on extra weight."

 

Then Ahab turned around and screamed at his scribes.  "I want Israel's rivers to run again!"

 

"Don't worry.  The rains will come back; the rains ALWAYS come back.  When the rains come back your rivers will run again."

 

Umm, it sounded good.  Ahab sat down on his throne again and began thinking.  Hours later he called the brave scribe over to him and said,, "Count out enough gold to import every grape Egypt will sell to us."

 

"Grapes?" asked the scribe with both eyebrows rising.

 

"Grapes," said Ahab.  "We are going to make raisins and sell them to the land of Shin for ice cubes."

 

"No wonder he is the King," the scribe marveled as he scurried off.

 

Ahab sat on his throne and waited for the rain to come back.  But the rains did not come back.  The raisins dried out perfect -- but the ice cubes came back from Shin, hot enough to boil the tea kettle dry -- and meanwhile,  some of Ahab's biggest blue lakes turned into little brown mud holes. 

 

Ahab was afraid to ask why his lakes were drying up.  It was so much easier to get angry with Elijah for causing the drought that he wanted to kill him.  That's why Elijah went and hid beside a pretty little stream called Cherith.

 

The river Cherish

That's where Elijah got his water to drink, but where do you think he got any food to eat?  He shopped at the very first air-borne home delivery system in the world!

 

 


6. 6

You know those big black birds that come up in the yard sometimes
and make all those rude noises at you from the trees?

Every morning some of these birds would carry meat and bread to Elijah in their beaks.
Every evening they would bring him some more so he wouldn't get hungry during the night. 

I wonder if it is true that these ugly birds even got together and brought the cat a drop to eat.

Raven providing cream for cat

Do you think that this kind of blackbird delivery service was where the Hot Pizza in a Jiffy got their idea from?

How would you like for some big blackbirds to bring all your meals to you in their beaks?

 

I wonder.  How much would you tip a blackbird for super fast, air mail delivery service?

 

King Ahab told everyone to buckle up and ignore the drought because there had been droughts before, and eventually, the rains always came back.

But that didn't happen this time.

Elijah had sealed the heavens for so long they glistened like hot brass melting in a blazing furnace.

Every day the drought got worse in Israel, and worse yet, as well.

Then, pretty soon, even Elijah's little stream squeezed out the last drop of moisture for him, and it dried up.  Then the bottom of the stream turned into mud, and then into dust.  That dust became so dry it began to blow away, for there was no rain fallen, anywhere in Israel.

Drought land

So the Lord sent Elijah to a village named Zarephath to live with a poor widow woman and her hungry young son. When Elijah arrived at her door, all these poor people had left to eat was one little handful of flour, and a tiny little thimbleful of cooking oil.


7. 7

              How long would one little handful of flour last in your home?  Droughts are getting serious when you get down to your last drop of flour and your poor son is so hungry he is sick nigh unto death.

But Elijah promised them in the name of the Lord that if they would give him all the food they had left, that the cruse of oil would never go dry, and the barrel of floor would never go empty; they would not hunger nor thirst for as long as Elijah lived in the home with them!

Oh, Ha, Ha! Huh? 

Would you give Elijah the last bite of food in your house if you knew you couldn't find any more food or drink in any of the stores, anywhere, in the whole nation of Israel?

No sir, not me.  But let's look at what happened.

The poor widow woman and her hungry son believed Elijah's promises really did come from God, so they agreed to give Elijah all the food they had . 

He watched as she cooked one little cake that would just barely fill his hand.  Then they watched as the prophet of God nibbled on the little cake to make it last longer.

They were very hungry too but they waited until Elijah had eaten up all the cake and then he asked them to prepare his bed so he could sleep. They watched as he laid down and closed his eyes.  Then they returned to the kitchen and peered into the empty cruse of oil. 

Even as they watched it began to fill with pure, virgin olive oil.  For them this was a huge miracle; they had oil to cook with.  Then they peered hopefully into the barrel of flour; and they saw that it was full.

They were so hungry they could not live another day, and suddenly here was flour and oil to cook it with, enough to wash away their hungry. 

"Son," said the widow, "a living prophet sleeps in our home and now, because we have honored him, he honors us.  So, what kind of cake do you want me to make?"

Therefore it came to pass even as he said, and they never went hungry or thirsty for as long as Elijah lived there with them.  Even their animals had enough to eat and drink.  Perhaps there were days when a few blackbirds stopped in for a bite as well.

Today there is a monument in the center of the city's park.

palace

 


8. 8

              Meanwhile, back at the palace, Ahab, the King, had only black water to drink.  He was very angry with Elijah because the drought was lasting forever and ever and all the rivers in Israel had nothing left in them except dry, powdered dust and even that was blowing away.

King Ahab ordered his soldiers to find Elijah and slay him.  Ahab wanted to go right on being wicked.

But, you know what?  Living wickedly is hard work, therefore it takes a lot more water to be wicked than it does to be good. The more Ahab thought of it, the angrier he became.  "Slay him, SLAY HIM?  What kind of soldiers are you that you can't find Elijah and slay him?"

Day after day there was no Elijah to slay.  King Ahab muttered dark thoughts in his long and ugly black beard. 

"Perhaps I should be slaying soldiers," he shouted in the dry palace halls.  "They are easier to find."

But even ugly old men have some responsibilities that won't go away when they are the king.  So, if there was any other way to find water for his people -- besides asking Elijah for a favor of course, Ahab would do it.

That's when he began looking around for other water sources!

Where do you think water to drink might be found?

Why, just look around you, there is water everywhere you look!

Or, is there?

earth, the water planet

Water, water, water... Lots of Water everywhere you look. In fact, the total amount of water on the earth is about 326 million cubic miles of water.

In fact, there is more water on the surface of the earth than any other substance. Water, water, and More Water for mile after mile after mile. All you can see is water out there in the salty sea.

but do you know what? There's not a drop to drink if the water comes from the ocean because 97.2% of all the water on earth is SALT water in the form of seas and oceans.  That only leaves us with 2.8% of the water on our planet that might be fresh enough to drink -- if we could just find it before it becomes salt water -- again.

"Well, where do we find the fresh water we need when we are so thirsty?" Ahab demanded his scribes to tell him.

Scientists believe that 0.6% of all our water is hiding beneath the ground. In some places that underground water is only one foot away from our feet. But, in other places our water is now living in a water table 20,000 feet deep! Huge turbines have to suck it up and spew it out.

How do you think all that water got buried beneath the ground?

Here's a deep blue clue:

When the weatherman says you have had one inch of rainfall, he means that 27,000 gallons of water fell on one acre of ground. 

There are 7.48 U.S. gallons of water in one cubic foot. A cubic foot is one foot wide, one foot long and one foot high.

One gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds.

That means it would take 219 million gallons of water just to cover one square mile with one foot of water. With that much weight pushing down on the ground, do you think some of this water might not get pushed down beneath the surface?

Yeah, I think so.

 

 

 

Silver sea scene

 

 


9. 9

              Not only is water very precious, water is a liquid that is very different from any other kind of liquid.

1.       First, water is the only substance that can be found naturally on our earth as a solid,

2.       as a liquid

3.       and as a gas.

We literally could not live without water moving through all three of those states, depending on where it is.

First, when temperatures fall below 32 degrees Fahrenheit -- or 0 degrees Centigrade -- water will begin to freeze as hard as a brick. 50 years ago there was a trick question that children tossed at each other:  "HOW COLD CAN OCEAN WATER GET?"  The answer was, only 32 degrees; If water gets any colder it turns into ice.

On a nice warm day you can run your hand through water and feel it resist the movement.

Then, water turns into clouds of steam when it gets too hot.

Here's another peculiarity. Any other kind of liquid shrinks when it gets colder.  But, as water turns into ice it EXPANDS – until it is solid ice. Because water expands when it begins to freeze the ice weighs less than the cold water around it. Therefore it rises up, up, and up until the top of the ice is higher than the top of the water.

Don't the tops of your top ice cubes always float just a little bit above the top of the water?

Because water expands when it freezes the bottom of the river can keep flowing even though the top of the river has enough ice on it to skate on. And THAT is why fish can go right on swimming beneath the ice.  If water was like any other liquid it would sink when it begins to freeze.  All our lakes, rivers and seas would freeze on the bottoms first.  It would be summertime before all that ice thawed out on the bottom and flood waters would be spilling out of the river into all our cities.

Yes, water truly is the most peculiar liquid on earth. For example, when the temperature drops below freezing, water can decide to turn into something hard -- like ice -- or something soft -- like a snowflake.

But, let's put a pot of water on a stove and as the heat increases it begins to bubble, then it turns into clouds of steam and if you leave it there long enough all of the water will disappear. But did you know that water doesn't have to boil before it turns into a cloud?

YES! That's right. Water in a bucket, water on a lake, water on top of the ocean, water just aturally leaps off into the sky to form big, fluffy clouds. Isn't that amazing? This  process is called EVAPORATION.  When our bodies become warm enough to sweat it evaporates, and that can cool off the surface of our skin, especially if the wind is blowing.

Sometimes water evaporates into the sky so fast that it takes frogs and fish up into the sky with it. Some people even claim they have seen it rain cats and dogs. People that say that have eyes that are smiling.  That was a joke that started back in merry olde England the houses for poor people used to have thatched roofs. Dogs and cats would burrow into the thatched roof to cool off and when it rained so hard that the thatched roof leaked and got them wet the dogs and cats would come tumbling down and shake the rain off their fur. Therefore when it rained and rained and rained until the cats and dogs fell out of the sky people said it was raining cats and dogs.” In other words, it was a very hard rain. 

Long, long ago, back before people had dryers, they hung their clothes out on long clothes lines to dry. If the temperature dropped, then the clothes might freeze solid. But the wet clothes would still dry out eventually because water is so peculiar that the water in the clothes would still evaporate even though it had turned into solid ice.

And here is the best part of evaporation. As the air in the sky changes its temperature, it squeezes the water out of the clouds and it falls back to the earth. This process is sometimes called CONDENSATION.

You can see condensation at work right in your own dining room. Just put ice in a glass and set it out on the table.

Because the ice makes the glass cold while the air around it is warm you will see water sucked right out of the warm air and turn into big drops of water that drip down the sides of the glass.  80 years ago poor people made drinking glasses from used cans.  The condensation that trickled off the outside of a cold can always tasted better than the drinking water inside the can, because it was pure water.

When crystals of frost catch the light from the sun they can sparkle like a thousand tiny rainbows. Have you ever wondered where frost comes from? Frost forms on windows and things when water changes directly from a gas to a solid form. 

Here's an experiment to show you another peculiarity of water: Fill a glass as FULL of water as you can get it without letting the water run over. Now, begin putting wooden toothpicks into the water, one at a time.

How many toothpicks can you put in before the glass runs over? Would you believe ten?

Would you believe a hundred?

Well, if you believed a thousand toothpicks you would be closer to right.  It's a fact. Because water molecules like to stick together on the surface you can put more than a hundred toothpicks into a glass of water without it running over if you put them in carefully. Go slowly and see how many toothpicks YOU can put in!

Here's another experiment that shows how different water is. Take a piece of cotton string two feet long. Put one end into a bowl of water and tie the other end up one foot or more above the bowl. Water will climb all the way to the top of the string. If you drop that other end of the string onto the table it will drain all of the water out of the bowl.

That's peculiar, huh?

Have you seen pictures of trees in school that show human faces on trees? The face is pictured in the trunk and way up the tree above the ground. Well, if you think about it, trees are standing up their heads must be pointing down.  Their heads are stuck in the ground so they can tell the roots where to grow. Trees absorb moisture through their roots and send it all the way up to the topmost leaf waving high in the air, 8, 9, 10 stories high. How do the trees get moisture all the way up there without using a hydraulic pump? Just like you did with the piece of string.

Ducks are heavier than water, so they should sink.  Right?

So, why does the water let ducks float on top?  Chickens don't float on top.  They sink and disappear.

There are several factors at work here. First, because ducks are birds they aren't as heavy as they look.  Their bones are hollow and light weight. Secondly, ducks can fluff their feathers out so that they weigh even less on each inch of water they are spread out on. Thirdly, ducks have an oil gland that lets them preen their feathers with oil. Since oil wants to float on top of the water the duck bounces up and down on the water's surface, just like they belonged there.

Not even a duck will build its nest under the water, but some spiders do. They spot little swirls of water and leap into the hole and spin their web beneath the surface of the water.  Then their web maintains that hole in the water.

There are also bugs -- called water striders that step right on the top of the water and walk nywhere they want to.

When drops of water form a body of water, the top portion of that water forms a smooth layer that can hold up small objects. All liquids do this and it is measured as TENSILE STRENGTH. It varies in strength as the temperature changes.

Isn't riding on the water a great place to have lots of fun?

 

White Water


10. 10

              One year after Elijah stopped the rain from falling, Ahab demanded to know how far his scribes would have to walk before they found the nearest glacier? Hey! Here's a deep blue clue...

Because Elijah stopped the rain from falling in Israel, the water level in the ground dropped lower and it became harder to get. That means the wells in Israel had to be dug deeper and deeper or there wouldn't be any water in them. Finally, digging wells turned into so much hard work the people quit digging at all. They began to sneak out of the country saying, “Let Ahab haul his own water if he wants to go on living like a wicked young prince.”

Do you blame them?

Ahab had to grit his teeth and give up on well water because he wasn't about to get his hands dirty in digging for water. After all, he had the dignity of a king to protect!  Right?  Kings can get away with things like that.

palace

There is a fresh water lake in Siberia that is almost 5,369 feet deep, or about one mile deep.

That's pretty deep.  This little lake is also about 360 MILES long and it is about 28 miles wide.  Ahab drooled when he thought about a lake that big.  "I've heard about mirages like that," he whispered.

One cubic mile of water contains 1,101,117,147,428.57 gallons.  The Great Lakes between Canada and the United States contain an estimated 5,500 cubic miles of water.  Meanwhile, wicked old King Ahab was angry enough to stomp a hole in the ground all the way into Lake Michigan.

Sure, there usually is water in our lakes and streams. But, even when the world is normal, only 0.1% of our fresh water is found in lakes and streams. Wow. No wonder everyone says we should keep our lakes and streams clean. They are precious.

 


11. 11

              How much fresh water is still left on the earth for us to find now?

Well, a tiny little .001% of our water is found suspended right in the very air we breathe.

If it wasn't there, we might just dry up and blow away too. King Ahab was discovering that in a drought even the air loses its water. He didn't want to dry up and blow away. He was getting very, very thirsty. So were all the people still trying to live in Israel .  They began to suggest that Ahab had to quit being so wicked so that Elijah would let it rain again -- and thus they hoped to see the dews come again to wet down the dust floating around in Carmel.

Camels don't get as thirsty as people do. Their sinus cavities are so deep they can go for days in the desert without water.  Would you rather turn into a camel, or simply ask God to bring the rains back?

Ahab was a very wicked old king. Do you know what he did?

He wished he was a camel.


12. 12

              MORE WATER INFORMATION

JUST FOR THE PARENTS

Rein your mouse up and stay awhile.

In the early 1900s, American industry only used about 10 to 15 billion gallons of water a day. By 1980, industry was using about 150-200 billion gallons of water each day to support our population. In 1980 the United States was using about 89 billion gallons of groundwater -- every day.

Mis-information about water uses muddies the issue so nothing right is being done.  For instance, there is a lot of talk about how much water is wasted in sustaining agriculture in the United States. People toss around stray facts that prove agriculture should be hung out to dry, facts like: About 25 gallons of water is required to produce just a single ear of corn. Growing a pound of cotton in Arizona consumes 1,000 gallons. Then there's that incredible nugget: Somewhere between 2000-2500 gallons of water is required to produce one pound of beef, and a dairy cow must drink about 3 gallons of water to produce each gallon of milk.

Boy!

Doesn't that PROVE that agriculture is a vain and foolish human activity?  No, not really. 

When they are indicted for this travesty, wise old farmers in Buckeye Arizona should be vocally protesting that if any water had stayed in that pound of cotton would weigh several tons and make it to heavy to wear.  The truth of the matter is" the ocean has not dropped so much as 3/10 of an inch since Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon.  That water is still here somewhere because the Mississippi River Basin is still flooding all too regularly. Farmers should be bragging that they are responsible for invigorating the atmosphere with moisture that makes it much easier for us to breathe. The rest of that water turns into rain and snow that falls right back on our heads. Plus, a major portion of Agricultural water sinks down deep and becomes groundwater!  On top of that, OXYGEN is being released into the atmosphere from every cotton stalk out there!  Whoever started such a wild rumor must belong to the Foreign Farmers Association.

Now, if you really want to talk about vain and foolish waste, let's look at washing our hair to look chic at water waste rallies.  Then let's look at the terrible waste of advertising on television, radio, Internet, and now even on our mobile devices >> which is supposed to make us eat more, drink more and sleep better.  Let's look at the water wasted in producing potato chips, candy bars, pizza and soda pop!  For a little added bonus, Look at how much water our pets drink.  Look at the cost of our backyard swimming pools.  Surely we can at least sacrifice the cost of advertising -- and for real efficiency we can outlaw all the lawyers in Washington D.C.!

 
"If we lock the vultures up
The chickens will lay more eggs!"
~ Lin Stone

.

The results of the last United States Geological Survey insist that about 450 billion gallons of water are used in this country per day, and we are still sending politicians off to Africa to teach them how to live more efficiently?

We can't even live on 2,000 gallons per person, per day and we're going to teach them how to suck eggs?

 

Water, WATER!

Water is needed every where.

 

·           Every day 10,000 children under 5 die from water-related illnesses.

·           Half the world's hospital beds at any point in time are filled by people suffering from water related illnesses.

·           Twelve million people a year die from lack of safe drinking water.

·           Three million die from water-borne diseases.

·           Every 8 seconds, a young person in a third world country dies from insufficient water supply or lack of pure water.

·           Eighty percent of the diseases reported in developing countries is related to poorer drinking water and the incidental elimination problems.

·           Women in rural Africa spend up to 85 percent of their daily energy to obtain their drinking water.

·           In other parts of Africa women can spend up to eight hours per day to obtain water.

·           33 percent of the women in Egypt will walk more than an hour every day just to obtain water.

In developing countries one person will use 2.6 gallons of water per day. In the United States one person uses 75 to 80 gallons per day.

The average American personally uses up around 150-250 gallons of water daily.

We can't even live on 2,000 gallons per person, per day and we're going to teach Africans how to suck eggs? 

To sustain us in the manner to which we have become accustomed, even more water is used up by industries to generate electricity, manufacture things, and transport people and goods along the fast track to nowhere.

Just washing an average load of laundry uses 40 gallons, filling a common-sized backyard pool once for the summer takes about 25,000 gallons,, while producing a single pound of copper uses 20

gallons. These uses DIRTY the water. Over 800 contaminants can be found in pools of water that are relatively clean enough to drink – in theory.

Common household uses consume a lot of water as well. Washing our hair can use up to 10 gallons of water.  It may take between 30 and 40 gallons for one bath. It takes 20-40 gallons of water for one quick shower. The average toilet uses about 5 gallons of water per flush. Washing machines use an average of 25 gallons per load.

The kitchen sink uses roughly 20 gallons per day for preparing meals and washing dishes. The bathroom sink, used for washing hands, shaving and brushing teeth, requires about 15 gallons per day, per person. These numbers are estimated for the average household in America.

Then think about all the water that is used by restaurants, hospitals, laundries, dry cleaners, golf courses, hotels, car washes, beauty shops, barber shops, gas stations, and health clubs as well as all of the other businesses in town. These all add up to quite a big demand on our water supply.

Of all the water used in the United States, only about 47% is used in agriculture, but 44% is used in industry.  That leaves a mere 9% for US.  Right?

 


13. 13

              Water, WATER!

Water is needed every where.

 

·           Every day 10,000 children under 5 die from water-related illnesses.

·           Half the world's hospital beds at any point in time are filled by people suffering from water related illnesses.

·           Twelve million people a year die from lack of safe drinking water.

·           Three million die from water-borne diseases.

·           Every 8 seconds, a young person in a third world country dies from insufficient water supply or lack of pure water.

·           Eighty percent of the diseases reported in developing countries is related to poorer drinking water and the incidental elimination problems.

·           Women in rural Africa spend up to 85 percent of their daily energy to obtain their drinking water.

·           In other parts of Africa women can spend up to eight hours per day to obtain water.

·           33 percent of the women in Egypt will walk more than an hour every day just to obtain water.

·           In developing countries one person will use 2.6 gallons of water per day. In the United States one person uses 75 to 80 gallons per day.

 

Two months before an ice storm hit us, one friend of mine challenged his church members to live on what they had at home for the next thirty days. “Turn off your electricity, turn off your gas, lock up the keys to your cars, and survive.”

They thought it would be fun; they agreed to try it. In just a matter of hours there was a squall of frustration. “Man was not meant to live without electric power and our other luxuries,” they cried.

Oh yes, going back to candlelight and beyond is a rude shock to the luxury-dependent soul. But you know what, Abe Lincoln did it not so long ago; people on some of our American reservations are still doing it.

Millions of people in third world countries are also still living without these luxuries and do so continuously.  As one sister in the south seas said when we came to visit -- I have a humble home, but if there is ANYTHING you want, just ask me and I will tell you how to live without it. --

We can learn much from the attitudes of people like this.

 


14. 14

              Water, Water is needed 
every where.

Every day 10,000 children under 5 die from water-related illnesses. Half the world's hospital

beds at any point in time are filled by people suffering from water related illnesses. Twelve million people a year die from lack of safe drinking water. Three million die from water-borne diseases.

Every 8 seconds, a young person in a third world country dies from insufficient water supply or lack of pure water. Eighty percent of the diseases reported in developing countries is related to poorer drinking water and the incidental elimination problems.

Did that grab your attention again? Good. It's time to take a look at moving water around on the planet so that more of it ends up where people need for it to be. Every year there are floods ravaging India, flood waters sweep down the Mississippi every few years and sand bags are hastily hauled into place to save towns along the way.

Meanwhile there are thousands of square miles of other land nearby that is stricken with a drought. Is it feasible to shift some of that flood water over to the drought-stricken land?

Occasionally the answer is a resounding yes -- or at least it seems to be. Right now the biggest project on the drawing board is a plan to shift the flood waters of the Mississippi River 1000 miles west and funnel it into the Navajo River. That is a tributary of the Colorado River that separates Arizona from California. The plan is said to be capable of sucking 1000 cubic feet of water per second over to where it should be – and removing the hazards and damage being done by

the flood waters swelling the Mississippi River basin simultaneously.  1000 cubic feet of water per second represents twice as much water as the state of Nevada's yearly allotment from the Colorado River.

The plan would shove all that water across the Great Plains, on over the Rockies, and down into southwestern Colorado. During this fantastic trip it would pass through 775 miles of pipe, 110 miles of canals, 85 miles of tunnels, and use seven pumping stations that would lead the water 7500 feet high before it came crashing down.

The price tag is expected to be only 12 billion dollars. Maintenance will be extra, of course.

So that's one example of how water can be shifted around. Anyone with Google Earth on their computer can spot other opportunities.  The trick is to go back up the raging rivers and see if there isn't a natural opportunity to shift the water over with minimal effort.

We can also harvest ice from glaciers and frozen lakes or rivers and ship it directly into our hottest deserts by truck, train and ship to melt  Bring 120 box car loads of ice into Las Vegas on the Fourth of July and you'll see a million Snow Cones gobbled up in a hurry. Is it feasible?

Yes, most box cars are empty more than half the time.  It all depends how you look at it, Right?

Google Earth can also reveal another kind of opportunity. Wells in southern Arizona are exceptionally deep now. Dragging water up from ten thousand feet is a terrible hardship on our electrical needs.

But what if we pump sea water up from the Gulf of California and flood the Gila River basin from Gila Bend to the Painted Rock dam so people can play in it and the blistering hot desert sun can convert it into precious rain water?

Yes, it CAN be done, and rather easily at that.

Google Earth says the elevation at the at that point in the Gila River is 639 feet. The top of Painted Rock Dam is 700 feet in elevation and the bottom is right at 600 feet in elevation. Consequently, if we pour sea water into the Painted Rock Dam Reservoir until the surface of the water is around 650 feet in elevation then you will have enough water to back it up all the way to the sea shores of Gila Bend. Yes, the SEA shores.

 

But what about COSTS?

Our investment will be little more than the cost of water pipe.  You sea, since water ALWAYS runs downhill, if our pipeline follows the Gila River bed from Gila Bend to the ocean there won't be ANY mountains to cross – and only ONE puny pumping station will be required to lift the sea water 700 feet high.

That's right!  Even though the pipe line will be around 300 miles long, the relift only has to lift it up 700 feet because water is relatively non-compressible.  What I mean by that is: If you smack it on one side it snorts on the other.. Lifting water up 700 feet is much cheaper than having to lift water 10,000 feet. Lift that water up 700 feet from the ocean and it will just naturally flow out the other end over the Painted Rock dam and into that reservoir. Over 200 miles of valuable ocean front real estate will be created

overnight. Gila Bend is already a natural stopping off place for thousands of visitors every day. By providing them with an opportunity to splash in real salt water hundreds more tourists will be

tempted to spend the night, and quite a few of them will be toggled over into spending the entire weekend especially if a few water features are introduced, like slides and waterfalls. 

Boating expeditions will churn up the water to a clean, fine froth and also be pure, unadulterated fun. But, the real reason I am suggesting this venture is that this area is subject to high  temperatures and strong winds that will enhance rapid evaporation.  How MUCH water can we pump into the air? When I was living near the fortaleza I measured the rate of evaporation and -- according to my calculations -- this project will pump 120,434,688,000 cubic inches of water per summer day into the atmosphere.

Now, let's go back to discuss why this region is classified as a desert.  Rains that would have preferred to drench this area are captured by the mountains lying between Arizona and the Pacific ocean. Instead of receiving 14-18 inches of rain annually this area has to be satisfied with 1-4 inches of rain annually.

Now if we could set up massive blowers on the ocean side of those mountains we could lift those rain-laden clouds up over the mountains and let the ensuing rains drench everything from El Centro to Lordsburg with a little left over for Lawton Oklahoma. Setting up huge blowers might be even more expensive than politicians can pretend to endorse, so let's at least consider the option of making Gila Bend a sea shore.

This project will have the capacity to pump up to double the amount of 120,434,688,000 cubic inches of water per day into the atmosphere, depending on several variables including humidity,

temperature and wind. Depending on the direction and speed of prevailing winds we can expect rain (and a little hail or snow) to descend from the sky and drench everything from El Centro to Lordsburg with a little left over for Lawton Oklahoma.

I must stress that this will be 96.7% GOOD rain water, parched pure by the ultraviolet rays of the broiling Arizona summer sun. When we have more fresh water falling upon the terrain as rain water we will simultaneously replenish our groundwater supply and diminish our need for importing water from the Mississippi River basin or the necessity of robbing the North Pole of its ice cap.

However, this operation will also be introducing a massive variation in at least one permutation in this region. First, if we shift from an arid region to a drenched region over night, what results must we anticipate a token appearance from? I would expect our primary experience would include repeated gully-washers.

When rains do happen in this region they are frequently heavy and this engenders raging waters that can dislodge palo verde trees and even a few tough old mesquite trees. Gully-washers also loosen and churn big boulders down the gully.

The loss of these items and the gravel and small rocks will increase erosion which goes downstream as far as it can and then piles up, which eventually causes natural dams to appear. These, in turn, hold the water back so that even more of this precious commodity seeps into the groundwater basins, but more importantly it will change the environment. There will be more grass appear and more wildlife emerge in those species that feed upon the grass and need little more than the increase in the water supply.

The region around Gila Bend Arizona is pretty much classified as a desert. The largest natural crops are cactus pears and mesquite beans, unless you count rattle snakes and Gila Monsters. But, on the other hand, there are species of fauna and flora that can not be expected to fare well in this sudden shift. Gila Monsters, scorpions, ticks, three-toed toads, terrapins and kangaroo rats will experience tremendous pressures on their domains. Many of the succulents will also feel pressure. With these obvious victims we must also consider the less obvious wild flowers, doves, and so forth will experience a different kind of pressure as replacements arrive that are already better adapted to a wetter climate. Can we as a nation accept the possibility of them losing a place in our world?

It is easy to say that we will worry about that when the time comes, but no, we must double cross that bridge before we come to it.

Otherwise we will be confronted with two catastrophes.. injuring the habitat for its present inhabitants, then having to deny the new habitat for the immigrating inhabitants. We must also include in our environmental impact studies the obvious and immediate influx of more human beings and their pets.  Half the population of Tucson will want to vacation in Gila Bend to go swimming!

One solution to the too much rain problem would be to regulate the amount of precipitation by limiting the amount of salt water being offered upon our evaporation altar. We can turn off the relift at any time and maintain the basin's water level exactly where we want it,

which in turn will regulate the amount of water being evaporated.

This might seem like an unwieldy regulatory tool but no, it will be an extremely precise tool. Evaporation quantities are determined by surface area presented to the atmosphere. If our water level at the dam is a mere one foot deep then there will only be some 782 square feet of water surface precipitating evaporation. Raise the level to 10 feet and we have 3.2 square miles.

Raise the water level to 30 feet and we have 8.72 square miles. Raise it to 50 feet and we have 30 square miles. Admittedly we must also factor in the current rate of evaporation per square foot of surface but this is also easily ascertained. Simply set out a square bucket full of water and measure how much water disappears over a 24 hour period. There may be variations occasionally, but on the whole the operation will be precise.

Our second consideration is what is left behind after evaporation occurs, namely the salts. Fresh water contains less than 1,000 parts of salt per million while ocean water contains about 35,000 parts per million of salt.According to my theories there are two possible manifestations.. salt will settle to the bottom and seal it off OR the water inside our basin will become a pool of concentrated salt water.

If the water becomes saltier our swimmers will find it easier and far more pleasant to float. If the salt settles on the bottom of our basin it should have already happened in our oceans too and could be tested before we launch our project by sending down a bucket to dredge up the top layer of ocean sediment. My vote says that the water itself will become saltier.

But wait, salt is a precious commodity when it is properly separated.  So, if our water becomes too salty we could siphon off huge volumes and precipitate the salt by virtue of the hot sun. This could turn into a cottage industry worthy of pointed consideration. Gila Benders can also carve out tiny coves and raise tropical fish for a greedy, worldwide market.

But, even if we don't produce enough local rains to to make a significant change in the environment, with a constant access to ocean water we could install a desalination plant that could give everyone in the state of Arizona a long drink of water.

One desalination plant in Saudi Arabia produces 250 million gallons of freshwater per day. The Kay Bailey Hutchison Desalination Plant for El Paso Texas doesn't even have clean ocean water to work from and yet it is capable of turning previously undrinkable brackish groundwater into 27.5 million gallons of drinkable water each day.

I have devoted considerable time and space on this project because IF it proves successful then the idea will also be a godsend in the Middle East. Israel has already been experimenting with the idea of splashing an abundant supply of salt water near the roots of their agricultural crops on the theory it will evaporate before it does any damage.

It has recently been discovered that once upon a time there was a huge inland sea or lake in that region. This implies a natural basin for holding water. IF the Gila Bend idea proves able to produce an abundance of rainfall then that basin could be filled with sea water in some hope of reproducing the success at Gila Bend. Eventually the entire Sahara desert might be reclaimed for agricultural purposes.

One more moot point on flooding the Painted Rock Dam basin and I'll pass on to hydro-electric production. This point is that US would have to buy out some of the farms that would be inundated if the basin is filled. Let me simply say that that ground has already been bought and paid for before the dam was ever put in. Anyone farming there already knows that any improvements they put in were subject to flooding. US does not owe them a cent.

In the world, and that includes the US, water use for the purpose of energy production is surpassing water use for agricultural purposes.

This sounds ominous until we remember that ALL water returns to the ocean, sooner or later.

Water being used for agricultural purposes will evaporate into the atmosphere far more rapidly than waters being stored for the production of energy – simply because the surface area exposed to that atmosphere is greatly expanded because of its application to agriculture.

Currently, the use of water for the production of more energy would require the building of more dams to store more water. Storing water behind a dam not only requires great planning and immense amounts of investment capital but enough TIME to fill the reservoir.

If we go back to merry olde England and look at the flour mills on the streams we will note that a huge hydro-electric dam was not required but got the job done anyway. In many cases just a small trickle of water was sufficient to grind all the flour in that area – and still would be. Mill races made out of concrete would last for centuries and perform adequately for just as long as there was a trickle of water.

In the United States we could mass produce an apparatus similar to the old flour mills and convert it to the manufacture of electricity.  800-900 such engines could be installed on the Snake River alone. If we consider the Columbia River US could really go to town. Even the mighty Mississip could produce a few kilowatts occasionally if we strung out a series of small generators instead of moving heaven and earth to create one big one.

 

 It is my hope and prayer that you have gained a few insights into the properties of water from reading this book. I leave you with a reminder of a few basic thoughts: Completely pure water is a poor conductor of electricity 1 square mile contains 4,014,489,600 square inches. One cubic foot of water contains about 7.48052 US gallons  One cubic mile of water has 1,101,117,147,428.57 gallons. Water's composition – if you measure it by weight instead of volume -- is one part of hydrogen to eight of oxygen or 11.1 percent of hydrogen and about 88.9 percent of oxygen) Therefore, the more water we break apart the more pure oxygen we release into the atmosphere.

Why, our scientists should be scrambling night and day to make our modern engines run on water, or at least steam! Once upon a time steam had more suddenly explosive power than any other substance on earth. It was literally too hot to handle right up to 1854 CE. when scientists finally figured out how to eliminate that anatomical reaction disturbing human sensitivities from Maine to Georgia and from Boston to Dover that had been blowing steam engines into smithereens.

Now we have ceramic metals capable of containing, and using, those molecular explosions to drive a freight train all the way across the United States on 10 gallons of clean water while releasing pure oxygen into the air.

Even if splitting water molecules under steaming pressure is still too dangerous we would be money ahead by using a return to the primitive steam engines that were safely winning races even when the field was dotted with big Dusenbergs.

45 trillion gallons of water are consumed in the United States per month. Around the world, water is in high demand and short supply because too many people want to use it at the same time; Naturally the cost is going up.

Over the past five years, municipal water rates have increased by an average of 27 percent in the United States, 45 percent in Australia, 50 percent in South Africa, and 58 percent in Canada.

2 percent of all the water on earth is locked in its polar ice caps. This frozen water can be covered to prevent evaporation and tugged to port cities for distribution. If California received enough ice water from the North Pole to replace the water it takes from the Colorado River then the water not used could replenish Nevada, Arizona and Colorado's current needs. The Great Lakes are even closer than the Pole. They contain an estimated 5,500 cubic miles (22,700 cubic kilometers)of water — that's one fifth of all the surface fresh water on Earth. Frozen water from the lakes could be covered, dropped into the Mississip and transported in pristine purity for free all the way to New Orleans, if necessary.

In Colorado, the Rocky Mountains create the headwaters for 4 regional watersheds that eventually supply water to some 19 Western states. Those 4 regional watersheds are the Arkansas, Colorado, Rio Grande and Missouri – or South Platte. Almost 90% of Colorado’s naturally occurring lakes are found at altitudes above 9,000 feet.

87% of the water leaving Colorado flows out of the Colorado River basin and goes where?

It is surging Westward – you know, toward the state of California and the Pacific Ocean.

Some people don't believe in Noah's flood because even if it had rained a thousand days it would just have picked up the water in one hemisphere and dropped it in another.

However, the Bible clearly states that it also happened at the same time that the fountains of the deep erupted – and that was more than enough to cover the land masses.

How much water is down there? Nobody knows for sure. However, scientists have estimated that the state of Wisconsin alone has approximately 1.2 million billion gallons of water poised beneath it, underground. Why, if all of that water suddenly spewed upward then it it would submerge the state in 100 feet of water – and that's just some of the groundwater available to the fountains of the deep that we know about.

But think about this; the United States is pumping out 339 billion gallons of groundwater a day. Soon enough all of it will be sitting above ground and making salty waves deep enough to float a boat.

As Dr. Spock will say from the Enterprise deck someday soon, The potential is “FASCINATING!” We still have more gallons of water on this planet than we have grains of sand. Let's start using them intelligently.

 


15. 15

              

 

Sometimes it seems that God is determined to make fools of even the best weathermen on the planet. 

They predict solid ice and the temperature goes up to balmy.

They predict light frost and trees are snapping to the ground everywhere.

What to do
When Water Turns Dangerous!

 

Icy Step Number One

The fact is, suddenly living without our luxuries doesn't need to be a catastrophic experience that destroys us – if we are prepared. All my life I've been training myself to survive, under any, and all conditions.

When my family woke up to the sound of cannons going off all around us we were astonished. Quite literally it sounded like there was a horrible war raging outside.  Before we got out of bed we realized that we were powerless and heatless to boot; without electricity our gas furnace would not function. That was the only gas outlet in the house. Already it was freezing cold inside our home.

After glancing outside to marvel at all the damage already done I heard my wife speaking on the cell phone to someone, lamenting our lack of luxuries. “You know, I wish we had invested in one of those little one burner stoves.”

“I've already got one,” I interrupted her.

“I mean one of those stoves that works on a little cylinder of butane.”

I nodded. “I've got one.”

“Then, why aren't we using it?” she demanded.

“I can have bacon, eggs and biscuits ready for breakfast in 30 minutes. I can feed breakfast to everyone on this block in 40.” She thought I was joking until I brought it all out, steaming hot.

“Well, aren't you the crafty one!” she marveled. “You used the barbecue grill. But, why didn't you use the butane stove you said we had?”

“This isn't even starting to be an emergency,” I reminded her. “Sure, we have the power off and gas gone, but it is expected back on at any moment. Sure, it is freezing outside, but because the house is so well insulated all we've needed to do so far is put on an extra coat and a ski mask.”

DO NOT START ANY FIRES INSIDE

UNLESS YOU HAVE A VENT FOR THE FUMES.

“We still have running water, but if it quits running, I have enough in the back room to last thirty days before we have to resort to emergency rations. Our refrigerator is full of ready-to-eat food, our pantry is stocked with enough food to last more than thirty days, just by using our mechanical can opener.”

“In the back room I also have enough survival food to last us a year. Our neighbor on the right has all the tools needed to protect us from the elements even if the roof comes off. Our neighbor across the street can take care of downed power lines, broken water lines inside the house, and take care of assorted other disasters. Our streets are still passable but if they didn't remain usable we have a neighbor right across there with eight horses and said he could remove all of us to a point of safety.”

“Enough,” she cried. “What's for lunch?”

“Steak, potatoes, salad and fried biscuits, if you want them.”               

She nodded knowingly. “Ah, you're going to break out the butane stove.”

I was disappointed in her response. “We still have a barbecue grill outside. On it I can fix ANYTHING a French chef can bring to life in a Paris kitchen, including cabbage cake. If the grill were gone it wouldn't take me much longer to bank up a cowboy fire and from it I can prepare almost any kind of meal you can name.”

She grinned. “Including cabbage cake?”

I had to hang my head in shame. “To cook a cabbage cake over a cowboy fire I'd have to break into the pots and pans in the back room. That would be cheating.  Most people don't keep the arsenal that I do, just in case we ever do have an emergency. Now, make that an order for chocolate cup cakes, and you're on.”

Even a good survivalist forgets what makes the world go around.  As the first day without lights or gas wore on I was constantly reminded how addicted we are to our luxuries. Numerous times I walked into a dark room and automatically flipped the light switch.

“Ah, without power the lights don't come on,” I remembered. Then automatically, I turned on the range to heat some water for a hot cuppa, and it hits me again. “No power, remember?”

That was amusing enough, but what was my next move? I started to put the cup into the microwave so I could heat it up. DUH!

Well, okay, let's turn on the TV and see what the weather channel says is coming up. Oh, FOOT! NO ELECTRICITY. Well, I'll turn on the computer and – that won't work. “Okay, but I have a portable computer..” Well, so I do, but I can't get on line, because DSL only works when the electricity is on.

People who know they might lose the comforts of heat for the duration should prepare a room in advance where all the family can gather. This should probably be the room nearest to the bathroom and other facilities.

Otherwise, it should be a room that you can close off and contain what little heat you have available. Remember that every time you open the door you will be letting out any heat you have managed to build up. Bring in your best cell phones. Let friends and neighbors know you are safe, then turn your phones off until YOU are ready for the child in Florida to tell you what kind of Maine weather you have coming,

If your Warm Room has windows to the prevailing winds outside you can lose heat out through them.  A quilt on the inside can help a bundle, but you can also go outside and cast water at them, or throw soft snow at them.  Ice may be cold, but it is also fairly decent insulation.

or leave only one on.

Bear in mind that over half your body heat goes out the top of your head. Cover thineself, with a fur cap if available. Cuddle your little toesies up with house slippers and draw on your winter mittens.

When Esquimaux get cold they bring another dog into the igloo to warm up the long winter night. If your dogs or pets are outside animals you should consider bringing them in sooner than you need them, and provide them with a good hot bath -- prior to breathing the same air they inhabit.

One of our friends put her outside dog in the garage and provided heat out there, leaving the door slightly ajar so s/he could get in and out. When Pat went to check on the dog at midnight she found the entire garage floor covered with dogs of all shapes and sizes. On top of anything in the garage that was above the floor was a solid carpet of cats. Pat didn't recognize any of them. Where did they all come from? How did they find her garage?

"There must be some kind of messenger service in the animal kingdom that says, PAT HAS A WARM SPOT OPEN, COME ON DOWN!"

Icy Step Number Two

ALL OUR PETS NEED US

I glanced at the fish in the aquarium and wondered how much longer they would last without air bubbling inside. A solution came to mind from the time I was interviewing a fish farmer and his power quit. I stuck the fish net into the water so I wouldn't chop up any little fish and used my hand-held egg beater to chop air into the water. Turn it sideways for maximum. Non-electric appliances are great aren't they?

Like my one burner stove, like my arsenal of pots and pans, my food storage, my water supply, my safety kit, YOU can be ready for ANY emergency, and you need to be. Someday, someday soon, your life may depend on it.

The truth is, all we need to do is plan ahead how we might deal with an actual emergency. When one does happen, LEARN FROM IT. Write down all the problems that immediately popped up and keep a record of any solutions that came to mind then, or came to mind later.

So, what needs in an ice storm do we have to prepare for, so far?

Cave ins! YES! Your roof can fall in on you during an ice storm. One gallon of ice weighs 8.34 pounds. 5 gallons of ice weighs about 42 pounds There are 7.48 gallons of ice in one cubic foot.

If you have a 2,000 square foot roof then a mere 1 inch of ice will weigh 867.041 pounds

2 inches of ice will weigh 1734 pounds,

3 inches of ice will weigh 2601 pounds,

4 inches of ice will weigh 3468 pounds,

5 inches of ice will weigh 4335 pounds.

No wonder those trees are breaking! You might think that your roof was built to withstand five inches of ice, but think again – how old is that roof?

Have you had termites at work on a critical joint? And, if you haven't swept the roof off for winter there may be debris up there that  catches even more ice at a critical junction. When your roof gives up it is almost a given that your ceiling will fall through as well.

NEXT. After every kind of weather emergency, the loudest lamentation is for documents and pictures that have been damaged or lost. Well, shucks!  Safe deposit boxes don't cost that much, but few people use them. Water tight, fire proof safes can be bought at home supply stores. Few people use them. At the very least, put these in plastic containers that can be sealed.

These documents should be ready to go with you if there is a need to evacuate. The container should be conveniently kept where it could easily be grabbed for quick removal. Perhaps the safest place to store those important documents which must be kept at home, is inside your freezer -- which is already insulated. Put them inside a good Baggie to keep the other odors out.

*

WATER

Strangely enough, even though there is an ice storm raging outside we go right on needing water. If the weatherman hints at an ice storm approaching, draw as much potable water as you have containers for,

with drinking water in one spot and usable water in another. Leave air space for expansion.

Leave your containers open until they reach room temperature, then close them. Doing this will help you maintain heat longer even if you lose your source of heat.

When running water quits you'll need a supply of water to flush with.

DISH water can be poured down the toilet too. When water quits

running you'll need other sanitation means available. A 5 gallon

bucket works better than nothing, but there are porta-potties available for the home.

NEXT, Get out your candles. Get out your matches. Have a candle and a few matches right near your resting spot. If you get advance notice that the electric might go off then go ahead and light a candle or a lamp so that the sudden darkness won't cause any confusion. While candles are a good source of light remember that you can also cook over them too if need be.

People with furnaces that operate with electricity should prepare for a lack of heat. That includes anyone with central heat and air as electricity is what makes the blower twirl. Meanwhile, people with vented gas heaters can get out the marshmallows and warm up the cocoa. They can also throw a party.

People with fireplaces should have a stock of firelogs or other material that burns. If you run out of material that burns naturally you can use any absorbent material -- such as a wash rag, for instance -- and lay it inside your fireplace. Saturate it with kerosene (for you younger generations, that is another word for lamp oil) and strike a match.

REMEMBER THIS!

DO NOT START ANY FIRES INSIDE

UNLESS YOU HAVE A VENT FOR THE FUMES.

NEXT, have a fresh supply handy of any daily medications your doctor deems essential to your good health. Food that you want to stock in your WARM room should preferably be the kind you don't have to cook. Cornflakes and other dry cereals, cookies, crackers, sliced ham, sliced luncheon meat, sliced bread, and don't forget the jam and peanut butter; these should be your staples unless you know better.

If you have it, bring in lots of canned juices, raisins, prunes, dried fruits (being sure to eat slowly and consume water heartily) soups, fruit cocktail, and powdered milk. Anything you really like to eat

should be in that room before you are forced to stay in it.

NEXT, if you still have time to get them -- or if you can borrow something from your neighbors -- you should have a battery powered radio, a crank type flashlight or at least one with a supply of extra batteries, Add an instructional manual on Emergency Preparedness, a Fire Extinguisher, bottled water to drink, sleeping bags and blankets -- add pillows if you like that sort of thing -- moisture proof matches or butane lighters are a necessity.

Don't forget your need for a mechanical can opener.

A Swiss Army Knife can provide you with many tools.

Stress Busters you can use:

Yeah, it is going to get boring with everybody locked up inside there if you aren't ready for it. For the children: Coloring book and crayons. A spare Palm Game with extra batteries wouldn’t hurt. A children's song book might save the day.

For adults: books to read & needlework, puzzles, etc.. How long has it been since you played a friendly game of checkers? Don't forget to bring in your Scriptures as this might be a real good time to get reacquainted with your Heavenly Advisor.

Your SANITATION KIT

Most of us don't even think about this subject but it will quickly become one of your uppermost concerns if your water lines and sewer lines freeze up. Your sanitation preparedness kit should consist of at least a tall, plastic bucket, soap, plastic bags and ties, Toilet paper & paper towels, disinfectant and at least an improvised toilet seat, feminine hygienic needs as necessary for each female member of your entourage.

Put a standard first aid kit close to your fire extinguisher. If you have it, your first aid kit should be supplemented with a first aid manual or at least have a scout handbook. Add aromatic spirits of ammonia and water purification tablets, table salt, baking soda, matches or butane lighter, aspirin, eye drops, safety pins, adhesive or paper tape.

Bandage materials should include Telfa pads 4" X 4" – Triangle bandage 37" X 37" X52". Splint aids can include popsicle sticks, shingles or thin board. If you run out when you need it, use a heavy

newspaper and strong string.

Now that you are prepared inside, call any elderly friends – or those who might be in need, to see what advice you can assist them with.

Overnight, ice storms can load up the power lines until they sag or break. Light poles can snap unexpectedly. Forgetting that their purpose in life was to protect nearby homes from icy winds and

steaming sun – trees can lash out in destructive paths, taking down power lines, porches and even roofs.

One thing about an ice storm, when the limbs fall it is usually straight down. Stay out from under the tree and you should be safe. That's just the rule. Rules were made to be broken by shattered tree limbs. Many times, on their way down, the tip of the limb will strike another limb (the

power lines, the edge of the house, etc..) and this immediately changes the direction of the limb as it falls so that we know not where it will strike, nor even which end of the limb will land the farthest from the tree.

Too quick for us to even shout a warning, our next door neighbor darted under her huge tree to yank a limb off her insurance agent's car. Sure enough, there was a cannon shot above her and another huge tree limb crashed towards her. She scooted for her life towards us. The limb should have surely struck her but the tip struck another limb on the way down and it swung end for end, missing her head by many feet instead of knocking her dead. She emerged, laughing at the surge of adrenalin that makes a mockery of danger.

As you cruise down the most damaged streets it is easy to see that much of the damage coming from trees should have been foreseen and taken care of prior to the storm. Limbs stretching over the roof can be trimmed back, before winter sets in.

It is easy to see houses that are in danger of roofs being crushed, homes being smashed. Instead of waiting for insurance carriers to pay off when the damage is done (in this storm, or a later one) these trees should be noted, marked, and taken care of as quickly as possible. Perhaps local agents should be protecting their companies by noting the homes they have covered so that rates can be raised or at least ultimatums made. Considering how much damage can be done to the community it would be even better if County Agents began issuing citations.

In reviewing the chaos of our last ice storm I noticed that in some areas more than half the limbs that fell had worm knots exactly where the limbs cracked off or the trunks split. Can these be spotted? YES!

Quite often.

RECOVERY!

Firemen and utility crews can be expected to work like heroes during any of our familiar weather emergencies. When universal disasters like this strike, our power companies have proven plans in place to deal with the situation. If just one area of the state is affected then experienced workers are rushed there from inside the state.

When the situation expands, thousands of workers can be rushed in from surrounding states. According to the power company pacts, if the crisis strikes unexpectedly then it may take 24 hours for relief to arrive. If the crisis is expected (and certain) then relief could be in place and ready to spring into action hours BEFORE the storm strikes.

Neighbors too can be expected to come over with offers to help, especially if they've already had some training, or if someone offers to let them perform useful labor.

CAUTION! If you don't trust a neighbor's expertise, beg off from any help they offer because your insurance company probably won't cover any of their foolish mistakes.

The trouble with ice storms is, how do you KNOW how bad the effects will be until they actually happen? Sometimes it seems that God is determined to make fools of even the best weathermen on the planet. 

They predict solid ice and the temperature goes up to balmy.

They predict light frost and trees are snapping to the ground everywhere.

Your best protection is to always be ready for the big one. Just being ready to cook over a candle could save your life.


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              The End

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   Lin Stone

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